Development of an emissions inventory is the first step to manage carbon emissions, this exercise can be done at a corporate level, or for a piece of equipment, a facility, and event or even for a specific product.

    • For a company, direct emissions (known as Scope 1 emissions) and/or indirect emissions resulting from imported energy like electricity, heat and cooling (known as Scope 2 emissions) can either be calculated on an operational basis (the sum of all emissions from operations under the control of that company) or an equity basis (the company’s share of emissions for an operation they don’t control but do have a financial interest in).


    • Scope 3 emissions that are generated by others as a result of a company’s activities (e.g., purchase of raw materials, purchase of goods and services, use of products by consumers etc.) can also be included in carbon footprint calculations to get a view on the complete impact of a company. Scope 3 emissions are key for analysing exposure to climate change risk as the most material risk exposure is often in an organisation’s supply chain.


    • Emissions associated with individual pieces of equipment or for facilities are useful to determine emissions that a company or facility operator is directly responsible for, using an operational control basis. These emissions, which can be Scope 1 or Scope 2 emissions, provide information of the direct impact of an operation and are often covered by regulatory reporting.


    • To calculate the emissions associated with a specific product, a life cycle assessment methodology is used to determine emissions associated with the entire supply chain from raw materials to manufacturing the actual product and potentially transport, distribution, use and end of life treatment. This information can be used as a market distinguisher for a product, or to claim carbon neutrality for that product if the appropriate offsets are obtained.


  • With all of these calculations, preparation is key. We will assist with determining the reason why a footprint calculation is required. This assessment will then inform the type of footprint required, the boundaries of the analysis and which emissions types to include (Scope 1, 2 or 3). Our in depth knowledge of emissions estimation techniques will be used to complete the calculations and assess the carbon footprint of the equipment, facility, company or product. We can also assist by creating forecast models to estimate future emissions and complete what if analysis – which are then used as a key input to overall climate change strategy.


All emissions calculations are completed using defined international standards and processes and are aligned with either national reporting requirements, the GHG Protocol or ISO 14064. Emissions factors relevant to the location of the company, operation or product are used to determine overall emissions.

Another benefit of the carbon footprint assessment is that comparisons and benchmarking can be completed and performance against peer companies assessed if desired. Carbon footprints of products can be compared to similar products, or competing products and used as a distinguishing feature in marketing.

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